Blogs

Vietnam War: Causes, Course, and Consequences

Abstract The Vietnam War which lasted from 1955 to 1975 was fought between North Vietnam (supported by the Soviet Union, China, and North Korea) and South Vietnam (supported by the United States,and its allies) was the longest war during the Cold War period. Besides being a stigma on the acumen of the political leadership and…

IMF Programme: Does it help a Developing Country?

Abstract The IMF’s mandate is to oversee the international monetary system and monitor economic and financial developments in and the policies of its 189 member countries. It helps member countries implement sound and appropriate policies by strengthening their capacity to design and implement sound economic policies. If a member country faces a balance of payment…

9 Drivers of America-China Cold War

Abstract The relationship between the USA and China has been quite complex bordering on a typical love-hate relationship. While both the countries have an extremely extensive economic partnership, and their economies are too closely intertwined to afford a long term rivalry yet there are quite serious issues between the two resulting in the start of…

The Coming Anarchy by Robert Kaplan: A Critique

Abstract After the fall of the Soviet Union, several scholars attempted to provide a new paradigm for understanding international relations. Francis Fukuyama argued that after the decline of communism, the humankind had reached an end point in ideological evolution, what he called the End of History.  His thesis was challenged by his teacher Mr. Samuel…

Sources of Soviet Conduct by X (George F. Kennan)

Abstract The USA fought the Cold War following the theoretical framework postulated by George Kennan in this highly influential article. It is justifiably called as a founding document in American foreign policy for the post WW2. Confirming their fears about the USSR’s hegemonic designs, it tried to provide an intellectual underpinning to American response of…

End of History by Francis Fukuyama-A Critique

Abstract After the fall of the Soviet Union, Francis Fukuyama attempted to provide a new paradigm for the academia and policy makers for understanding international relations after the fall of the Soviet Union. He argued that after the decline of communism, and the emergence of democracy, the humankind had reached an end point in ideological…

Modern Nation-state System: Challenges & Prospects

Abstract Peace of Westphalia (1648) not only created the modern nation-state system in Europe but also stipulated the basic rules of the statecraft. Despite all the criticisms about its Western origins, the concept of state and nation took firm roots in most parts of the world, thanks to colonialism. However, it is now facing an…

Determinants of Foreign Policy

Abstract Foreign policy is neither formulated nor operates in a vacuum, rather it is a conditioned response to the events and trends prevailing in the environment, both domestic and external. In normal discussions, you will find a long list of determinants of the foreign policy of a country. This article categorizes all the important determinants…

Foreign Policy: Tools & Instruments

Abstract Once formulated, the foreign policy of a country is implemented with the help of several tools available in the tool kit of the foreign office. This article explains those instruments namely Diplomacy, Economic Diplomacy, Use/Threat of Military Force, Soft Power, and Alliance Building Introduction Once formulated, the foreign policy of a country is implemented…

American Interests in Afghanistan

“The war is not meant to be won; it is meant to be continuous”- George Orwell Although elimination of the global terrorism is the the stated aims of America’s various military adventures in different parts of the world since 9/11, there are always other multiple objectives for these invasions. Thus USA attacked Afghanistan on October…

Breakup of the Soviet Union: Causes & Consequences

Abstract After the end of WW 2 in 1945 till its dissolution on 25th December 1991, the Soviet Union was the largest country in the world, competing with its arch-rival, the USA eyeball to eyeball on every global issue. However, it crumbled like a house of cards within 18 months after holding a first-time free…

Formulation of Foreign Policy in Pakistan

Introduction Pakistan being a functioning democracy, its policy formulation process, by and large, resembles any nation-state having fairly well-functioning democratic institutions, multiple stakeholders at different layers and fields playing their constitutionally-mandated respective role in the formulation of the foreign policy. However, it is one of the ironies of fate that Pakistan, which owes its creation…