International Relations

Relationship between Mughal Emperor and British Monarch

Relationship between Mughal Emperor and British Monarch

There was only one documented interaction between the British Empress Ellizebeth-1 and the Mughal King Akbar when the former sent a personal letter to the latter for providing security to the delegation visiting India in the summer of 1585 “to introduce the trade of marchandize of al nations whatsoever they can, by which meanes the…

What is a Foreign Policy?How and by whom it is made and implemented?

What is a Foreign Policy?How and by whom it is made and implemented?

Improving the quality of life of its citizens is the prime objective of any state. Quality of life depends upon and consists of several things ranging from protection from external aggression, ensuring law and order, improving standards of living and creating harmony among different sections of the people. For this purpose, a state formulates several…

How to Divide History into Phases?

How to Divide History into Phases?

Everyone has his/her own way of dividing history into phases, depending upon the perspective used. An economist would divide the history in accordance with the dominant mode of production. On the other hand, a political scientist would divide it according to dominant mode of governance . I prefer to divide history according to the revolutionary…

Modern Public Administration-Issues and Challenges

Modern Public Administration-Issues and Challenges

A modern public administrator in any country has to grapple with multifarious issues and face multiple challenges which are in addition to the traditional challenges of delivering quality service in given time and with limited resources. I have identified seven such issues which you can remember in the form of an acronym-BAD STEP. This acronym…

Role of Westphalia (1648) in modern international relation system?

Role of Westphalia (1648) in modern international relation system?

Concluded in October 1648 among the European powers of the day except England, Poland, Russia and the Ottoman Empire, Peace of Westphalia is considered to be the foundation stone of the modern nation-states system. It not only brought to an end two wars namely the Eighty Years’ War between Spain and the Dutch and the…

Different Schools of Economic Thought

Different Schools of Economic Thought

In Economics, a school of economic thought is a group of economic thinkers who share or shared a common perspective regarding the way economies work. Systematic economic theory has been developed mainly since the beginning of what is termed as the modern era which started with the rise of early classical economists belonging to the…

European Union-Crises of Confidence

European Union-Crises of Confidence

After the end of the 2nd WW, Europe became the world’s 2nd most prosperous region after the USA mainly due to America’s generosity in the form of the Marshall Plan and the military protection it provided under NATO. Although Washington Consensus provided an ideal financial and economic environment for the developed and the developing countries…

Causes of 1857 War of independence

Causes of 1857 War of independence

Introduction On April 27, 1857, eighty-five soldiers of a Bengal regiment of British East India Company, posted in Meerut, disobeyed to use the new cartridges, allegedly encased in cow and pig grease. Harsh punishment meted out to the disobedient soldiers and that too in front of their colleagues, resulted in the mutiny of several regiments…

Clash of Civilizations- A Critique

Clash of Civilizations- A Critique

USA fought the Cold War in accordance with theoretical framework postulated by George Kennan in his highly influential article “Sources of Soviet Conduct”, published in Foreign Affairs in its June edition of 1947. Kennan advocated the superiority of the Western way of life over the collectivist ideals of Soviet Communists which needed to be countered…

Why Did Soviet Union Enter Afghanistan in 1979?

Why Did Soviet Union Enter Afghanistan in 1979?

On December 25, 1979, the 40th Army of the Soviet Union entered her neighbouring country, Afghanistan in order to prop up the government of the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA). PDPA, a steadfast ally of the Soviet Union, was facing an existential threat from a bloody insurgency, apparently home-grown but covertly sponsored by arch…

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