International Relations

Islamophobia: Genesis, Challenges & Response

Abstract Islamophobia is the irrational hostility, fear, or hatred of Islam, Muslims, and Islamic culture, and active discrimination against these groups or individuals within them. It manifests itself through individual attitudes and behaviours, and the policies and practices of organizations and institutions. This article attempts to clarify the concept, identify its various manifestations, analyse the…

How did South Korea Develop so Rapidly?

Abstract South Korea started as an agriculture-based economy in the 1950s but has become the 11th largest economy in the world contributing 2% of world GDP in 2020. Growing at the average rate of more than 5% per annum, its total GDP is over $1 trillion and a per capita income of over $42,000 (PPP…

Afghanistan: A Tale of Three Afghan Wars

Abstract It has become fashionable to say that Afghanistan has been a graveyard of foreign empires throughout its history It has been accepted by everyone as a gospel truth without even have a cursory look at the history-ancient or modern. Not totally untrue but a bit exaggerated claim, fairly farther than the truth In its…

How did Syrian Presiden Bashar ul Assad Suirvive?

Abstract Contrary to general perception that the Syrian crises started in the aftermath of the 2011 Arab Spring, a protest movement of the people in several Middle Eastern countries against their oppressive, non-representative dictatorial regimes. May be true in some instances but not in case of Syria. In an interview done in 2005 by CNN,…

National Interest: Meaning & Components

National Interest is a vague and ambiguous term that carries a meaning per the context in which it is used by the statesmen and policy-makers for justifying the actions of their states. While Morgenthau equated it with “survival—the protection of physical, political and cultural identity against encroachments by other nation-states”, Charles Lerche defined it as…

China Iran Relations: Past, Present & Future

Although unofficial diplomatic interaction between the People’s Republic of China and Iran started in 1949, formal diplomatic relations between the two countries started in 1971 after the historic USA-China thaw. Notwithstanding the ideological differences between the leaders of the two countries-the Shah was friendly towards the United States and Mao was a communist, the relationship…

The Scope of International Relations

Every branch of academic disciplines tries to explain some aspect of the world from different perspectives based on its respective body of literature. This body of literature has been built over a period in response to particular problems or questions emerging relating to its subject matter. Similarly, the study of international relations (IR), a branch…

Global Terrorism: Challenges & Response – Part 2

Abstract Terrorism is an historical as well as a universal phenomenon, practised by every type of organisation, religious or non-religious, right-wing or left-wing. Consequently, the reasons for the terrorist activities  are always subject to the context, time and place. However, there has been an increase in terrorist attacks; Middle East, Asia, and Africa were most…

World Peace: A Norm or an Aberration?

The International Day of Peace, sometimes called World Peace Day, is observed annually on 21 September. There are two opposite views whether world peace, narrowly defined as absence of warfare, is a norm while war is an aberration. Dr Margaret MacMillan, Professor of International History at Oxford and author of The War That Ended Peace,…

Global Terrorism: Challenges & Response – Part 1

Abstract Terrorism is an historical as well as a universal phenomenon, practised by every type of organisation, religious or non-religious, right-wing or left-wing. Consequently, the reasons for the terrorist activities  are always subject to the context, time and place. However, there has been an increase in terrorist attacks; Middle East, Asia, and Africa were most…