International Relations

Global Terrorism: Challenges & Response – Part 1

Abstract Terrorism is an historical as well as a universal phenomenon, practised by every type of organisation, religious or non-religious, right-wing or left-wing. Consequently, the reasons for the terrorist activities  are always subject to the context, time and place. However, there has been an increase in terrorist attacks; Middle East, Asia, and Africa were most…

Six Fault lines of Afghanistan

Six Fault lines of Afghanistan

Afghanistan, to a great extent, is the Lebanon of central Asia. Just study the power-sharing formula of Lebanon and you will have some idea of future Afghanistan Located at the southern edge of Central Asia, the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is a landlocked country bordered by Pakistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and in the far…

War on Terror: Causes, Course, Costs and Consequences Part 1

War on Terror: Causes, Course, Costs and Consequences Part 1

“This crusade – this war on terrorism – is going to take a while” George Bush   Abstract Though it was the worst intelligence failure of any intelligence agency in history, the USA took maximum advantage of 9/11 tragedy and embarked on the mission to accomplish the objectives set forth in the infamous neo-con paper,…

War on Terror: Causes, Course, Costs and Consequences Part 2

War on Terror: Causes, Course, Costs and Consequences Part 2

“This crusade – this war on terrorism – is going to take a while” George Bush   Abstract Though it was the worst intelligence failure of any intelligence agency in history, the USA took maximum advantage of 9/11 tragedy and embarked on the mission to accomplish the objectives set forth in the infamous neo-con paper,…

Arab Spring- Causes, Consequences & Lessons Learnt

Arab Spring- Causes, Consequences & Lessons Learnt

Abstract The Arab Spring is the name given to the spontaneous uprising of the public against the bad governance of the modern Middle Eastern countries in the first half of the 21st century. The immediate result of the Arab Spring was the regime change and subsequent transformation of governance style in Tunisia leading to the…

Globalization: Compressing Time and Space -Part 2

Globalization: Compressing Time and Space -Part 2

Abstract Globalization, a multidimensional set of social process that create, and intensify world wide social, economic and technological  interdependencies and exchanges, is an historical phenomenon affecting every country directly or indirectly.  This essay examines the 5-phase history of globalisation taking five crucial inventions of mankind namely fire, wheel, printing, steam, and internet respectively as the …

Globalization: Compressing Time and Space – Part 1

Globalization: Compressing Time and Space – Part 1

Abstract Globalization, a multidimensional set of social process that create, and intensify world wide social, economic and technological  interdependencies and exchanges, is an historical phenomenon affecting every country directly or indirectly.  This essay examines the 5-phase history of globalisation taking five crucial inventions of mankind namely fire, wheel, printing, steam, and internet respectively as the …

Relationship between Mughal Emperor and British Monarch

Relationship between Mughal Emperor and British Monarch

There was only one documented interaction between the British Empress Ellizebeth-1 and the Mughal King Akbar when the former sent a personal letter to the latter for providing security to the delegation visiting India in the summer of 1585 “to introduce the trade of marchandize of al nations whatsoever they can, by which meanes the…

Foreign Policy: Features, Success Factors & Challenges

Foreign Policy: Features, Success Factors & Challenges

Abstract Some things are more difficult to define than they seem to be. Foreign policy is one such concept which every person understands but will be at a loss to define it formally. Even those who are considered experts in international relations differ from one another to define foreign policy in definitive terms. This article…

How to Divide History into Phases?

How to Divide History into Phases?

Everyone has his/her own way of dividing history into phases, depending upon the perspective used. An economist would divide the history in accordance with the dominant mode of production. On the other hand, a political scientist would divide it according to dominant mode of governance . I prefer to divide history according to the revolutionary…