Pakistan Studies

Formulation of Foreign Policy in Pakistan

Introduction Pakistan being a functioning democracy, its policy formulation process, by and large, resembles any nation-state having fairly well-functioning democratic institutions, multiple stakeholders at different layers and fields playing their constitutionally-mandated respective role in the formulation of the foreign policy. However, it is one of the ironies of fate that Pakistan, which owes its creation…

Constitution Making in 1950s: Causes of Delay

Introduction After its independence from Britain in 1947, Pakistan adopted the 1935 Indian Constitution with slight modifications as an interim constitution. Known as Pakistan (Provisional Constitutional) Order 1947, it established the federation of Pakistan comprising East Bengal, West Punjab, Sindh, NWFP, Baluchistan, any other area that might accede to Pakistan. This Interim Constitution provided for…

Pakistan Ideology: Sources & Features

Abstract Ideology of Pakistan is one of the most intellectually misunderstood and politically misused concepts in Pakistan. Some persons equate it with Two Nations Theory which was the basis of creation of Pakistan while others bracket it with Islamic Ideology. Both are not true. This essay attempts to dispel the above myth by explaining the…

Pakistani Culture: Sources & Drivers

Although Pakistan is only a 70-years old nation-state, all its federating units are proud inheritors of thousands of years old rich cultural traditions manifested in all facets of their daily life-food, shelter, clothing, ideas/beliefs, entertainment, etc. However, slowly but surely, distinct Pakistani culture is emerging with its own peculiar ethnic Pakistani touch, kaleidoscopic blend of…

Privatisation: Advantages & Disadvantages- The Great Debate

Like so many other terms and concepts in social sciences, privatization has not any universally acceptable definition. There are at least three perspectives from which privatization can be defined for analytical purposes and suggesting/taking policy decisions. Economic Liberalization: In its broadest sense, privatization can refer to economic liberalization of the entire economy by removing the…

Food Security Policy of Pakistan: Challenges & Response in Covid-19 Environment

Basic objective of any country all over the world and throughout the history has been to improve the quality of life of its citizens. Although a comprehensive concept having social, economic and political dimensions, the first and the most important component of quality of life is the food security—sufficient availability of quality food and its…

Pakistan’s Strategic Culture: Determinants & Dimensions

Abstract Strategic culture is set of shared beliefs, assumptions and modes of behaviour derived from common experiences and accepted narratives that shape collective identity and determine appropriate ends and means to accomplish national security objectives. It is a complex phenomenon shaped by history, geography and cultural heritage of a country. This article attempts to analyse…

Electoral Reforms: Need and Recommendation

No one can deny the importance of fair and free elections held periodically to fill in the seats at various tiers of parliamentary democracy. There are at least eight functions ofelections in any democratic set up 1.       Leadership Funnel: Firstly, they are an institutional mechanism to elect the ruling elite in a country run under democracy….

Comparing Economic Progress of Pakistan with South Korea – Part 1

Abstract Comparing the 70-year development experience of Pakistan with that of any of the Asian Tigers, particularly South Korea, is an exercise in futility; the speed and content of the economic development of a country depends upon several constants and variables such as Initial conditions at the start of its economic development Economic policies adopted…

Comparing Economic Progress of Pakistan with South Korea – Part 2

Abstract Comparing the 70-year development experience of Pakistan with that of any of the Asian Tigers, particularly South Korea, is an exercise in futility; the speed and content of the economic development of a country depends upon several constants and variables such as Initial conditions at the start of its economic development Economic policies adopted…