Pakistan Studies

Causes of Failure of 1857 Indian War of Independence

Causes of Failure of 1857 Indian War of Independence

  On April 27, 1857, eighty-five soldiers of a Bengal regiment of British East India Company, posted in Meerut, disobeyed the command of their senior British officer, to use the new cartridges for newly introduced Enfield rifles, allegedly encased in cow and pig grease. Harsh punishment meted out to the disobedient soldiers, and that too…

Chinese Interests in Syria

Chinese Interests in Syria

Chinese involvement and her role in the ongoing Syrian crises make an interesting reading. While Russia has vital stakes in the survival of Assad because if his regime fell, Russia would lose much of its influence in the Middle East as the ties between Russia and Syria are more than four decades old. Russia is…

Political Economy of Pakistan under General Ziaul Haq (1977-88)

Political Economy of Pakistan under General Ziaul Haq (1977-88)

If General Ayub came into power by overthrowing the same civilian president who had appointed him as Chief Martial Law Administrator in 1958, General Zia took over the reins of the country by removing the same person who had handpicked him, out of turn, to serve as the chief of the armed forces of the…

Political Economy of Pakistan under General Ayub (1958-68)

Political Economy of Pakistan under General Ayub (1958-68)

The legendary but controversial period of the first of the three military phases of Pakistan is the so-called ‘Decade of Development’ of 1960s which started with the imposition of Martial Law on 7th of October 1958 by a civilian President who was ousted in turn within 20 days by the same general who was entrusted…

Pakistan Railways: Why and How of its Turnaround

Pakistan Railways: Why and How of its Turnaround

Arguably one of the best infrastructural legacies left behind by the British colonial rulers of the Subcontinent, Pakistan Railways is one of the most discussed and maligned State Owned Enterprises (SOE) in the country for incurring recurring annual losses running into billions of rupees and widespread dissatisfaction about its performance. This is really unfortunate and…

Political Economy of Pakistan under Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto

Political Economy of Pakistan under Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto came into power after the dismemberment of united Pakistan in 1971 and stayed as its supreme leader for five and a half years till he was removed on 5th of July, 1977 and finally executed by his own out of turn handpicked army chief, General Zia on April 4, 1979. His tenure…

Pakistan’s Difficulties at the Time of her Independence

Pakistan’s Difficulties at the Time of her Independence

Pakistan was a 5000 years old society and 150 years old nation when it came into existence as an independent nation- state on 14th of August 1947 after the dissolution of British Indian Empire. Main reason for the emergence of Pakistan was the failure of the dominant Muslim elite of united India in extracting sufficient constitutional…

Pakistan Railways: Historical Evolution

Pakistan Railways: Historical Evolution

After first successful commercial launching of regular train service from Liverpool to Manchester in 1830, railways networks were rapidly built in all the British colonies including India.  On April 16, 1853, the first train in the Subcontinent ran between Bombay and Thane. Drawn by three appropriately named locomotives (i.e. Sultan, Sindh and Sahib) this 14-carriage-long…

1857 Indian War of Independence: Indian Sepoys’ Mutiny

1857 Indian War of Independence: Indian Sepoys’ Mutiny

On May 10, 1857, eighty-five soldiers of a Bengal regiment of British East India Company, posted in Meerut, disobeyed to use the new cartridges for newly introduced Enfield rifles, allegedly encased in cow and pig grease. Harsh punishment meted out to the disobedient soldiers and that too in front of their colleagues, resulted in the…

How to Attract Foreign Investment

How to Attract Foreign Investment

Every country needs and encourages foreign investment for several reasons. The capital inflow is needed by the developing countries not only to add to the size of domestic stock of real capital and consequent acceleration in employment and output but also to reduce the economic disparities between leading and lagging areas. Besides increasing the pool…